The operation of the heat pump is based on the physical discipline that the evaporation results in heat-removal and the condensation results in dissipation.
During the operation, the low-boiling refrigerant becomes gas, which absorbs heat in the evaporator at low temperature and under low pressure. This gas flows in the suction line and then in a pressure pipe by an electrical compressor. The gas becomes liquid again in the capacitor accompanied by dissipation. After that the liquid refrigerant is transferred into the fluid pipe respectively an inlet pipe separated by an expansion (bleeder) valve. This pipe transfers the liquid again to the evaporator - and then back again to the beginning of the cycle.
The above described cycle consists of four main units:
4. Expansion valve
The evaporator is a heat exchanger where the temperature of the heat source (air, groundwater, soil) is passed to gas cycle – the heat pump absorbs the low-temperature energy from the environment.
The compressor compresses the refrigerant increasing the gas pressure and even its temperature. This way, the temperature of the refrigerant is enough high to be able to transmit the heat towards the building.
The condenser is a heat exchanger where heat dissipation is made towards the building. The energy of environment is dissipated here.
The expansion valve is responsible for reducing the pressure of the refrigerant, so that its temperature will also decrease. This step brings us back to first process when the refrigerant can absorb a new „energy package” from the environment.