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Orientation of solar panels

In Hungary, the solar panels are generally facing true South with angle of 40˚. Panels can also be placed in a system that enables panels to track the movement of the sun throughout the day so we can receive much more optimal efficiency this way. The disadvantage of this sun tracking system is that it needs a complicated automation system and so increases the costs of the solar system.

Solar cell constructions

Off-grid systems
An off-grid system means that the electrical energy is produced by solar cell modules and stored in batteries. This way the current consumers can be supplied with even 12V or 24 V direct voltages. If necessary, we can also operate the current consumers of ~230V voltage by applying inverter. Its use is preferred if the consuming point is located far from utility power plants. Due to losses arising from electrical energy storage, its efficiency is rather lower than that of the electric grid recuperation system.

Electric grid recuperation
Electric grid recuperation means that the voltage supplied by solar cells is transformed directly into alternative current and so the consumers. When there is no consumption, the appropriate inverter transmits energy to the electric grid. When the solar panels do not produce electric energy, it will be supplied from the utility power plant. The electric grid recuperation is used mainly in case of family houses where the current network already exists. The excess energy feedback can be possible to the electric grid and metered by a special (bidirectional) counter. Energy suppliers are obliged to accept green energy since 2003.